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52 West Main Street
Washingtonville, NY 10992

Phone: 845.497.4000
Fax: 845.497.4030

Science

Our area of study is: 
Life Science and
Ecosystems
Homework
Mr. Andersen's HR: Prepare to take your Science Quarterly 4 on Monday, June 18th.
Mr. Chin's HR: Prepare to take your Science Quarterly 4 on Tuesday, June 19th.
 
EXTRA CREDIT Article Research Presentation
Find an article that reports upon a new finding, development, invention or discovery of a scientific nature.  Create a display or slide show or some other method in which to present your findings to the class. This is not homework. It is an optional project that individuals may select to share with the class.  Please have all projects submitted by either May 31, or June 1.
 
Extra Credit Paragraph on Birds of Prey Presentation. Due by Friday, May 26.
Submit a paragraph about Mr. Robinson's presentation on birds of prey. You should include informtion about birds that Mr. Robinson brought in to share on May 24th, 2018. You need to make sure that you include why you are choosing to write about these birds, and anything that you learned from the presentation. 
Skeleton Notes 

A.  Adaptations have 3 main purposes

1. help organisms get energy

2. help organisms to attract mates - reproduction keeps their species ongoing

3. protection from things that pose a danger to them

B. There are three types of adaptations
1.  Structural Adaptations - adaptations that are based upon the physical structure of the organism; these adaptations are often a part of the organism and help in a physical way   
     Examples: wings and feathers to help fly, hollow bones to lighten weight,    ear shape to enhance hearing, fur for staying warm or cool,    
2.  Behavioral Adaptations - adaptations that are based upon the actions that an organisms takes; these adaptations may change as the organism encounters new situations
     Examples: showing teeth to intimidate, inflating its body to scare away predators, flashing feathers, spinning a specific type of web, making a certain kind of nest, creating a call to attract attention, slapping water to warn others like it, flying south in winter for warmer climates
3.  Body Process Adaptations - adaptations that are based upon things that happen within the biology of an organism

     Examples: hibernation which slows the processes in a body so that the organism uses less energy and protects from harsh weather conditions, changing colors to blend in with a background (to hide from prey or predators) or to show emotion.

C. competition - the struggle among organisms (living things) to survive in a habitat with limited resources.
Predators - an animal that hunts other organisms for food. Predators often have eyes in the front of their head to help them judge distances as they hunt for prey.

Prey- an animal that is hunted and eaten for food. Prey often have eyes located on the sides of their head to help them stay safe from things that hunt them.

D.  symbiosis - a close, long-term relationship between organisms that benefit at least one of the organisms The two members of a symbiotic relationship are the parasite and the host.  
There are three types of symbiotic relationships: parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism.      

     1.  Parasitism -  parasites get food by eating the host's partly digested food, depriving the host of nutrients. Example: A botfly burrows under the skin of a mammal and feeds off of the mammal. The mammal develops a skin irritation from the botfly.
     2.  Mutualism - both parasite and host benefit from their relationship. Example: An Egyptian plover feeds from the teeth of a crocodile. The crocodile gets its teeth cleaned and the plover gets food.
     3.  Commensalism - one of the organisms benefits greatly from the symbiosis; the other is not helped but is not harmed or damaged from the relationship. Example: Barnacles grow on the sides of humpedback whales. The whales are unaffected and the barnacles get fed from wherever the whale feeds.
 
E. Three Cycles in Nature
Nature recycles resources such as nitrogen, carbon and water. This means that organisms use these same materials over and over again.
1.  Water Cycle.  The power of the Sun energizes this cycle causing water from our lakes, streams, and oceans to evaporate (or change from a liquid to a gas).  Water vapor also comes from transpiration (evaporation from leaves of plants) and from when animals exhale.  As water rises in the atmosphere, it cools and condenses. This water vapor changes from a gas back to a liquid and form clouds.  Eventually, this water becomes heavy enough to fall to the ground, or precipitate.
2. Nitrogen Cycle. All living things need nitrogen.  It is an important part of protein.  The air in our atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen, called free nitrogen.  In order to be usable by organisms, it needs to be fixed nitrogen. The free nitrogen fals from out atmosphere with the rain and enters the soil. In the soil, the free nitrogen gets help from bacteria and joins up with other elements. In this way, nitrogen becomes attached or fixed to another element. This fixed nitrogen is usable by plants. When plants are eaten by primary consumers, or when secondary consumers eat those primary consumers, the nitrogen enters their bodies and helps to build proteins. Eventually, these animals die, and their remains return to the ground. This process allows the nitrogen to separate from their elements and this nitrogen becomes free nitrogen once again.
3. Carbon Cycle.  All living things need or use carbon.  Carbon is commonly recycled when plants take in carbon dioxide and use it during photosynthesis. The plants then release oxygen into the atmosphere. This oxygen is then inhaled by animals.  The animals exhale carbon dioxide, releasing the carbon back into the air. Another way that carbon is released into the air is when fossil fuiels such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned. When volcanoe erupt, they release vast amount of carbon into the air.
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52 West Main Street Washingtonville, NY 10992  |  Phone: 845.497.4000  |  Fax: 845.497.4030
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